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Todd H. Baron 2 Articles
Self-expandable metallic stent-induced esophagorespiratory fistulas in patients with advanced esophageal cancer
Iatagan R. Josino, Bruno C. Martins, Andressa A. Machado, Gustavo R. de A. Lima, Martin A. C. Cordero, Amanda A. M. Pombo, Rubens A. A. Sallum, Ulysses Ribeiro Jr, Todd H. Baron, Fauze Maluf-Filho
Clin Endosc 2023;56(6):761-768.   Published online July 25, 2023
Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDFPubReaderePub
/Aims: Self-expandable metallic stents (SEMSs) are widely adopted for the palliation of dysphagia in patients with malignant esophageal strictures. An important adverse event is the development of SEMS-induced esophagorespiratory fistulas (SEMS-ERFs). This study aimed to assess the risk factors related to the development of SEMS-ERF after SEMS placement in patients with esophageal cancer.
This retrospective study was performed at the Instituto do Cancer do Estado de São Paulo. All patients with malignant esophageal strictures who underwent esophageal SEMS placement between 2009 and 2019 were included in the study.
Of the 335 patients, 37 (11.0%) developed SEMS-ERF, with a median time of 129 days after SEMS placement. Stent flare of 28 mm (hazard ratio [HR], 2.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.15–5.51; p=0.02) and post-stent chemotherapy (HR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.01–4.00; p=0.05) were associated with an increased risk of developing SEMS-ERF, while lower-third tumors were a protective factor (HR, 0.5; 95% CI, 0.26–0.85; p=0.01). No difference was observed in overall survival.
The incidence of SEMS-ERFs was 11%, with a median time of 129 days after SEMS placement. Post-stent chemotherapy and a 28 mm stent flare were associated with a higher risk of SEMS-ERF.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • How to reduce fistula formation after self-expandable metallic stent insertion for treating malignant esophageal stricture?
    Kwang Bum Cho
    Clinical Endoscopy.2023; 56(6): 735.     CrossRef
  • 2,065 View
  • 109 Download
  • 1 Web of Science
  • 1 Crossref
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Migration of covered expandable metal stents after endoscopic ultrasound-guided hepaticogastrostomy: stent covering versus stent design?
Todd H. Baron
Received June 16, 2024  Accepted July 1, 2024  Published online July 3, 2024  
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