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Bimodal Chromoendoscopy with Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy for the Detection of Early Esophageal Squamous Cell Neoplasms

This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of dual-focus narrow-band imaging (dNBI) and Lugol’schromoendoscopy (LCE) combined with probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy (pCLE) to screen for esophageal squamous cell neoplasms (ESCNs) in patients with a history of head and neck cancer.
From March to August 2016, dNBI was performed. Next, LCE was performed, followed by pCLE and biopsy. Histology has historically been the gold standard to diagnose ESCN. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and accuracy of dNBI and LCE adjunct with pCLE were determined.
Twenty-four patients were included. Ten ESCNs were found in 8 patients (33%). Forty percent of high-graded intraepithelial neoplasias and all low-grade intraepithelial neoplasias were overlooked by dNBI. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy of dNBI vs. LCE combined with pCLE were 50% vs. 80%, 62% vs. 67%, 36% vs. 44%, 75% vs. 91%, and 83% vs. 70%, respectively.
The use of dNBI to detect ESCN was suboptimal. LCE with pCLE following dNBI had additional value for detecting esophageal dysplasia not detected by dNBI. The use of pCLE to detect dNBI-missed lesions yielded a high NPV, while pCLE-guided biopsy could reduce the number of unnecessary biopsies.
Key Words: Narrow-band imaging; Lugol’s chromoendoscopy; Probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy; Early esophageal squamous cell neoplasm
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